There might be several people who might not even be aware of what alopecia areata is, but those in the know will know that this is a condition that leads to hair loss, mainly on the head. This is actually a condition, within the human body, that leads to the loss of hair, in patches and while it happens mostly on the head, in rare cases, it can affect other parts of the body.

What is Alopecia Areata?

  • Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition, which leads to hair falling out
  • The condition causes the body to attack the hair follicles, which leads to the hair to fall out
  • The loss of hair can be in a pattern or in small patches that are random
  • The loss of hair is most commonly seen on the head, but in rare cases, it can affect other parts of the body as well
  • There is till date, no exact cause that has been identified for alopecia areata
  • The condition has been attributed to other autoimmune conditions such as Type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis
  • In most cases, there is only partial hair loss, but in the most severe cases, there can be complete hair loss or alopecia universalis
  • In many cases, the hair does grow back, but there is always the chance for it to fall out again

There is no proven cure for alopecia areata, but several routes of treatment have proven effective and while hair does grow back, what is more important to remember is the fact that the further hair loss can be prevented.

What are the causes of Alopecia Areata?

 Studies looking into the causes of alopecia areata have been going on for a long time and are still continuing, but one thing that doctors and researchers have been able to confirm is that this is an autoimmune condition. An autoimmune condition is one wherein the immune system of the body is unable to differentiate between the good cells and the bad cells. In alopecia areata, the immune system of the body attacks the follicles of the hair, leading to them falling out. The condition leads to the hair follicles becoming smaller, which eventually stops the production of hair altogether.

Perhaps the main issue behind alopecia areata is the fact that despite in-depth research, there is still no clear reason for why the immune system attacks the hair follicles. However, it has been noticed that people who have a family history of type 1 diabetes or other autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis are more prone to developing this hair condition.

What are the symptoms of Alopecia Areata?

The fact that alopecia areata is a condition that leads to loss of hair, that itself is the first symptom.

  • Hair tends to fall out in small round patches, normally a few centimetres, mainly on the scalp
  • Loss of hair could occur on other parts of the body as well
  • If the hair loss is really extensive and there is no hair on the entire head, it is referred to as alopecia totalis
  • If the hair loss is extremely extensive and there is no hair on the entire body, the condition is known as alopecia universalis
  • Even in this condition of hair loss, hair could grow back and then it could fall out again

How is alopecia areata diagnosed?

Proper diagnosis of alopecia areata can be done only by an experienced doctor and most of them will be able to detect the same, only by looking at the scalp and gauging the extent of hair loss.

  • Some doctors might take a few hair samples and examine them in greater detail under a microscope to determine that it is alopecia areata.
  • In certain cases, the doctors might request for a scalp biopsy, simply because they would want to rule out other conditions that could lead to hair loss, such as scalp infections. A small piece of skin will be removed from the scalp and the same will be used for the biopsy.
  • In case, the doctor suspects any other kind of autoimmune conditions, he could also suggest that the patient undergoes a few blood tests. The blood tests will be specific to the kind of condition that is being suspected or will be with the intention of locating certain antibodies.
  • Some of the other commonly prescribed blood tests include those to check iron, testosterone and thyroid levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels and antinuclear antibody test.

Who is most likely to get alopecia areata?

 There is no fixed rule or guide book that can tell you who is most likely to get alopecia areata, however, it has been noticed that genetics have a large role to play in it. If someone in the family has alopecia areata, chances are that it might travel down the family tree and affect others as well.

It is important to remember that alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition, which means that it can affect anyone. It is just as important to remember that alopecia areata, if detected in time, can be treated and the results can be permanent.

How is alopecia areata treated?

 While there is no cure for alopecia areata, the condition can be treated, provided the same is detected well in time. As a matter of fact, treatment can not only help stop further hair loss, it can also assist with hair growing back faster.

Here is how medical treatment for alopecia areata works:

 There are certain medications such as Minoxidil, which can be rubbed into the scalp and that in help with the stimulation of hair growth. There are also other creams and ointments which can be applied to the scalp for better hair growth. Certain doctors would also be willing to prescribe steroid injections, which are normally injected into the scalp. Photochemotherapy is also known to be an effective solution, where radiation with ultraviolet light, combined with oral medication can help improve hair growth.

There is also a range of alternative therapies:

 Some of the most commonly used alternative therapies to treat alopecia areata include intake of vitamins, aromatherapy, herbal supplements and acupuncture. However, none of these therapies have been proven, which is why their effectiveness is not guaranteed for everyone.

What can be done to help with alopecia areata?

 There are some steps that can be taken to help reduce the discomfort that is often associated with alopecia areata:

  • Whenever you are stepping out, make sure that you apply sunscreen to the areas that have been affected by the condition.
  • The scalp should also be protected with a scarf or hat
  • If eyelashes have fallen out, it would be wise to wear sunglasses

Alopecia areata manifests in each person, in a different manner, which is why it is important to remember that the hair growth and efficacy of any and all treatments will vary. While some people might see results after the very first treatment, there would be those who will need more than five or six sessions, before they start to see the very first hair. It is also crucial to remember that in many cases, the hair growth might be temporary and the hair can fall off. In many cases, different treatments might be required and for some only a combination might work.

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Alopecia areata is a hair loss condition also known as auto-immune disease that causes the quick start of round patches of baldness or spot baldness. It causes sudden flat or circular patches of hair loss which varies in sizes from an inch to the whole scalp or sometimes even the whole body. During the early stages, a single patch is observed and consequently more patches develop in other areas which are usually round or oval.

The patch looks so smooth that as though hair follicles had been entirely damaged. Hairs may be seen at the margin of this patch. These are broken, short hair that diminish at the base. Pulling slightly on these hairs causes them to fall out. Some people may experience a slight burning or tingling in the area of hair loss. Mainly young people in their early age start losing hair. Very few people may have this problem genetically. It affects both genders. Alopecia areata is infrequently related with any other external or internal medical problems. The state of hair may improve or can get worse on its own. Most often these bald areas regrow their hair spontaneously. Causes of Alopecia Areata The growth of alopecia areata is erratic. A number of people loose hair in only a small patch. Some may have more extensive involvement. A total loss of scalp hair is known as “Alopecia totalis”. The loss of body hair is known as “Alopecia universalis”.

These two conditions are rare. Alopecia areata is occasionally associated with other autoimmune conditions such as allergic disorders, thyroid disease, vitiligo, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. The diagnosis or treatment of these diseases is not likely to affect the course of alopecia areata. Sometimes, alopecia areata occurs within family members, suggesting a role of genes.  There is a higher rate of a family history of alopecia areata in people who are affected. Genetic factors seem to play an important role in this. Alopecia areata appears to also have an autoimmune factor causing the patient to develop antibodies to different hair follicle structures. Certain chemicals that are a part of the immune system called cytokines may play a role in alopecia areata by inhibiting hair follicle growth. Some studies show that emotional stress may also cause alopecia areata. From the prudent area, the hair follicles enter into the telogen or late catagen stage of hair growth due to which hair loss occurs. In the catagen stage the hair follicle discontinue growing and in the telogen stage it falls out. Hair pass through these stages casually and the growing hair on the rest of the head outnumber the hair that fall out. In alopecia areata, something causes all the hairs in a certain area to enter the telogen or catagen stage at the same time. Recently some studies have suggested that alopecia areata can be caused by an oddity in the immune system. This particular abnormality leads to autoimmunity, a mistaken immune system that tends to attack its own body. As an effect, the immune system attacks specific tissues of the body. For unidentified reasons, the body’s own immune system disturbs the hair follicles and disrupts normal hair formation.

What is the treatment for alopecia areata?

Spontaneous remissions and reoccurrences are common in Alopecia Areata. However, there are very less chances of hair re-growth when the time period of hair loss and the area is larger as in alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. Mild cases of Alopecia Areata can be treated with intralesional steroid injections. Treatment can also include topical corticosteroids, minoxidil or contact immunotherapy. For more severe cases, oral steroids can also be considered. On rare occasions, if Alopecia Areata is stable and unresponsive to medical treatment, hair transplantation may be considered. Therefore, a cosmetic concealment or an exact treatment of alopecia areata is certainly very part of patient management, otherwise the damaging emotional effect of significant hair loss for both women and men can be considerable.

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